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I plan to collect historical documents and articles by various authors in this blog, usually without comments. Opinions expressed within the articles belong to the authors and do not always coincide with those of mine.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Greek Atrocities in Izmir, Aydin, Bergama, Manisa, Tire...

Source: Professor Stanford J. Shaw, 'The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic,' New York University Press, New York (1991).

Page 239:

"While the Greek and Armenian community leaders in Istanbul and Paris pressured the Allies to drive the Turks out of Istanbul and much of Anatolia, the Empire's Jewish leaders, remembering very well the persecution their people had suffered as Ottoman territories had come under the rule of independent Christian states, not only refused to join their delegations but actively pressured the Allies to allow the Turks to remain in areas where they consisted a majority of the population, thus incurring further the wrath of the Christian leaders. In Thrace and Southwestern Anatolia also the invading Greek army, which was attempting to provide the Paris Peace Conference with a fait accompli in the territories it wished to retain, armed the Christian minorities and encouraged them to attack Muslims, with the Jews suffering as well because of their support for the Turks during the war [89], and with the once-flourishing Jewish community of Salonica in particular being permanently displaced by Greek refugees from Anatolia settled there after the Greek army evacuated Anatolia.

The Greek army that occupied much of southeastern Anatolia starting in May 1919 slaughtered thousands of Jews and Muslims in the course of its attack, not only during its initial landings at Izmir, but also in the interior during the subsequent two years, and particularly during its final retreat to Izmir, when it ravaged and burned Bursa and other towns and villages along the way. Albert Nabon, Principal of the AIU [Alliance Israelite Universelle] Boy's School in Izmir, reported to the Alliance on 6 July 1919:

'The city was put on fire and sacked, the people dispoiled of all they possessed. There is no food, putting the entire population on general, and our co-religionists in particular, in danger of suffering greatly from these privations'

going on to describe how most Jews, not only from Izmir but also from Greek attacks at Aydin, Bergama and Manisa, took refuge in his school, where they were suffering from overcrowding, lack of food, and medicine. [90]."

Page 240:

"Jewish notables, like the Muslims, were beaten and executed, many Jewish homes and shops were ravaged and burned, and hundreds of Jews were deported to almost certain death in the countryside. As the Greek army retreated in panic late in the war, moreover, it burned the Jewish and Muslim quarters of Izmit, Manisa and Bergama, destroying synagogues, yeshivas and hospitals as well as homes and businesses while killing hundreds and forcing the remainder of the non-Christian population to flee in panic, ...[95]"

[89] Edgar Morin, Vidal et les siens (Paris, Seuil, 1989), 67-93. A dossier of reports on Greek atrocities against people and officials in the Izmir area is in BA [Basbakanlik Arsivi=Prime Minister's Archives], Adliye Tezkere 246/2740, 18 September 1920; see also Ottoman Council of Ministers Minutes/MVM vol.213 no.457, 24 November 1334/1918; vol. 215, no. 249, 28 May 1335/1919; vol.216 no.263, 1 June 1335/1919, describing Greek soldiers driving the settled population out of Bergama and Izmir; vol.216, no.269, 1 June 1335/1919, describing the displacement of Jews and Muslims at the Dardanalles/Canakkale by Greek settlers from the Aegean islands; vol. 216, no.288, 9 June 1919, regarding Ayvalik; vol.216 no.380, 21 June 1919, describing Greek and Allied attacks on the local populations in Thrace and at Izmir, Diyarbekir and Bayezid; vol.216 no.323, 26 June 1919; vol. 216 no.337, 15 July 1919; vol. 216 no.339, 15 July 1919; and particularly vol.216 no.343, 16 July 1919, regarding Greek atrocities in Aydin province; vol.217 no.573, 29 November 1919, and vol.221 no.127, 30 April 1921, and no.239, 4 August 1921, on Greek atrocities in Thrace; vol.218 no.9, 11 January 1920 on resettlement of Greeks from America in Anatolia; also BEO, 343329; Greek atrocities in Southwestern Anatolia and Thrace were condemned by an international investigation commission headed by American High Commissioner in Istanbul, Admiral Mark Bristol, leading the Allies to abondon further support for the Greek invasion. See Ottoman Council of Ministers Minutes, vol.217 no.481, 16 October 1919. Also Hayyim Cohen, Jews of the Middle East, 18.
[90] Similar reports came from Nabon to the AIU on 2 July 1919 (no.23/915), 9 July 1919 (no.26/927), 12 July 1919 (no.27/932) and 14 July 1919 (no. 28/933). In Nabon's report of 17 July 1919 (no.30/935), he stated that the Greeks at Aydin had burned 200 Jewish houses and 13 shops, had dispoiled all the local Jews of their money and property, and had strangled two Jews as well as driving the remainder to seek refuge in the local AIU school: 'At Aydin, Manisa, Tire and everywhere else, our Jews live in an atmosphere of suspicion by the Greek inhabitants' who suspect that they favor the Turks. On 23 July 1920 Nabon reported that all the Jews had left Izmir, the synagogue had not been burned, but the Greeks had taken all its valuables as well as the property of local Jews, and the streets were full of bodies.
[95] Univers Israelite, 2 September 1921, p.467-48, quoted in Guleryuz; see also Galante, Anatolie II (1939), 70-100; and 'Manissa', EJ XI, 878-79.

Source: 'Greek Atrocities in the Vilayet of Smyrna (May to July 1919), Inedited Documents and Evidence of English and French Officers,' Published by The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress at Lausanne, Lausanne, Imprimerie Petter, Giesser & Held, Caroline, 5 (1919).

pages 82-83:

1. The train going from Denizli to Smyrna was stopped at Ephesus and the 90 Turkish travellers, men and women who were in it ordered to descend. And there in the open street, under the eyes of their husbands, fathers and brothers, the women without distinction of age were violated, and then all the travellers were massacred. Amongst the latter the Lieutenant Salih Effendi, a native of Tripoli, and a captain whose name is not known, and to whom the Hellenic authorities had given safe conduct, were killed with specially atrocious tortures.

2. Before the battle, the wife of the lawyer Enver Bey coming from her garden was maltreated by Greek soldiers, she was even stript of her garments and her servant Assie was violated.

3. The two tax gatherers Mustapha and Ali Effendi were killed in the following manner: Their arms were bound behind their backs with wire and their heads were battered and burst open with blows from the butt end of a gun.

4. During the firing of the town, eleven children, six little girls and five boys, fleeing from the flames, were stopped by Greek soldiers in the Ramazan Pacha quarter, and thrown into a burning Jewish house near bridge, where they were burnt alive. This fact is confirmed on oath by the retired commandant Hussein Hussni Effendi who saw it.

5. The clock-maker Ahmed Effendi and his son Sadi were arrested and dragged out of their shop. The son had his eyes put out and was then killed in the court of the Greek Church, but Ahmed Effendi has been no more heard of.

6. At the market, during the fire, two unknown people were wounded by bayonets, then bound together, thrown into the fire and burnt alive.

The Greeks killed also many Jews. These are the names of some:

Moussa Malki, shoemaker killed
Bohor Levy, tailor killed
Bohor Israel, cobbler killed
Isaac Calvo, shoemaker killed
David Aroguete killed
Moussa Lerosse killed
Gioia Katan killed
Meryem Malki killed
Soultan Gharib killed
Isaac Sabah wounded
Moche Fahmi wounded
David Sabah wounded
Moise Bensignor killed
Sarah Bendi killed
Jacob Jaffe wounded
Aslan Halegna wounded....

pages 40-41:


All the mosques and religious institutions of Manissa, numbering about 150, have been violated by the Greek army, their doors were forced in and their floors torn up, their carpets stolen or soiled, their windows broken and their inside walls defaced. The worst damaged mosques of the town are the following:

Servili mesdjid
Tchatal djami
Kenzi djami
Ak mesdjid
Ayvaz Pacha djami
The convents Kenzi, and Kabak Hadje
Gune Djami
Dere mesdjid
Nifli Zade
The school of Theology Sinan and the cemetery Thchatal Kabristan,
are violated, defiled and deteriorated.

page 53:


The following villages of Bergamo, one of the richest and most prosperous regions in the world, are completely burned and destroyed by the Greek hordes:


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